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Criteria and responsibilities in electro-instrumental systems in classified areas

Monday, 22 October 2018 PDF icon Criteria and responsibilities in electro-instrumental systems in classified areas
1. Introduction
The constant and continuous technical evolution consequently leads to the need to update reference standards of everything concerning the installation, operation and maintenance of the electro-instrumental equipment suitable for installation and operation in environments with the presence of explosive gases or dusts.
For these reasons, it is essential that the designer, the manager and maintenance operator of such equipment must have all the regulatory tools always present and constantly updated, in order to correctly design and size the electro-instrumental equipment and then to keep them constantly efficient, respecting the protection of people and things.
2. The regulations covering the Ex field 
The following list of the regulations describes the fundamental criteria to be adopted for the construction, installation and maintenance of electro-instrumental equipment.

The voltage levels and the energy distribution in the world

Friday, 14 September 2018 PDF icon The voltage Levels and the energy distribution in the world
1. Introduction
Electricity is the engine of the world, whether it is produced by oil, gas, water flow (waterfalls with dams and related turbines), wind energy, photovoltaics, fossil combustion (coal and fossil coal) or from renewable sources (bio gas or bio masses).

The aircraft warning lighting

Thursday, 19 July 2018 PDF icon The aircraft warning lighting
1. Introduction
"Obstacles to fly" are commonly defined vertical constructions such as buildings of large dimensions, power lines, antenna repeaters, supports, chimneys, wind generators, cableways, stretched ropes and similar infrastructures that exceed a certain height from the ground, divided into:
  • vertical obstacles with a height equal to or greater than 60 meters from the ground, if located in residential areas and with a height of 15 meters from the ground, if located outside the residential areas.
  • linear obstacles with a height above the ground of 15 meters or more, consisting of power lines with a voltage exceeding 50 kV (regardless of the height above the ground) and all obstacles with a height of less than 15 meters above the built-up areas; having a particular location and not easily recognizable.

From food to textile industry: the often disguised explosiveness of dusts

Thursday, 19 April 2018 PDF icon From food to textile industry: the often disguised explosiveness of dusts
1. Preface
Dust explosions can occur in any activity in which solid materials are treated and finely divided (metals, organic substances, polymers, resins, coals, wood, etc.). Dust may be the end product of a process or an unwanted by-product. Even very common substances such as wheat flour, cocoa powder, icing sugar, tea, coffee, present an explosion hazard, often masked by their familiar appearance, when they are treated, in powder form, on industrial scale in milling, transport, separation, drying processes.
A myriad of small-sized particles is produced during the processes, thus creating dust. The particles with dimensions that are too large to remain suspended in the air are deposited, while the smaller ones remain suspended for an unlimited period.
The powders are measured in microns (μm). The micron is a unit of length equal to 10-4 (0,0001) centimeters or about 1/ 25,000 of an inch.

The use of batteries in hazardous areas

Tuesday, 20 March 2018 PDF icon The use of batteries in hazardous areas
1. Type of batteries and technical evolution
The electric energy in alternating current produced by thermal systems (coal-fired or oil power stations etc.) or by hydroelectric plants, is "non-accumulable" while the energy in direct current can be stored using devices called "Battery". This system allows to dispose of the energy over time and to be able to use it even in the absence or failure of the supply of traditional energy in alternating current.
With the rechargeable batteries, the charge can be completely re-established through the application of adequate electrical energy, with voltage/current control.

The barrier cable gland: moldable sealant (two-component filler) vs auto-forming sealant (two-component resin)

Friday, 23 February 2018 PDF icon The barrier cable gland: moldable sealant (two-component filler) vs auto-forming sealant (two-component resin)
1. Preface: the selection of the cable gland
In the plant concept it has always been of primary importance the physical separation between safe area and classified area. This concept was applied in the electric energy transport systems by means of cables buried in sand bed and then derived to the user (an electric motor or a junction box or an end user) with the use of a conduit tube suitable for the insertion of electrical cables (Freez-Moon) free from internal ridges and terminated on the end user through a physical separation made with explosion-proof sealing device (for example a sealing fitting).
With the advent of the IEC/EN 61241-0 and IEC/EN 60079-0 standards, as well as the IEC/EN 60079-1 standard, changed the concept of cable entry in electrical and electronic equipment suitable for areas with danger of explosion, allowing to have the cable entry with appropriate sealing cable gland.

The importance of the anti-condensation and the pre-heating systems in electric panels for environments with risk of explosion

Tuesday, 23 January 2018 PDF icon The importance of the anti-condensation and the pre-heating systems in electric panels for environments with risk of explosion
In electrical panels for industrial environments, are usually installed systems for preventing the formation of inside condensation, a formation caused by the heat exchange deriving from variations of the ambient temperature in the transition from day to night and vice versa.

The materials suitable for hazardous areas

Friday, 1 December 2017
In chemical, petrochemical, oil plants and, generally, in all types of industrial facilities which present a danger of explosion due to the presence of gas in the form of cloud or flammable dust, there are also harsh chemical substances that can be harmful and source of deterioration of electric and non-electric equipment.
Many different materials are used for producing enclosures, equipment, fittings and components designed for areas with a potentially explosive atmosphere.
The aluminum alloy is today one of the most widely used worldwide materials for the construction of a ex-proof enclosure.

The flash flow time constant in LED lighting technology

Thursday, 19 October 2017 PDF icon The flash flow time constant in LED lighting technology
The significant percentage respect to the initial luminous flux emission
1. Preface
The continuous growth of LED lighting is significantly transforming the lighting industry, providing a range of millions of colours and dynamic effects that conventional lighting cannot match in terms of design. Furthermore, the miniaturization of the dimensions and the low thermal radiation allow LEDs to be incorporated almost everywhere.

The importance of the certification of an accredited laboratory also for ‘Ex nA’ or ‘Ex nR’ equipment suitable for installation in environments with explosive atmospheres

Wednesday, 20 September 2017 PDF icon The importance of the certification by a laboratory for Ex nA and Ex nR equipment
1. Introduction

The choice of the specific construction design, whether ‘Ex d’, ‘Ex e’ or ‘Ex nA’ or ‘nR’, is in accordance with the hazardous areas classification normed by IEC 60079-10 and EN 60079-10 standard.

Cortem Group, for almost fifty years present on the ex-protected international market, produces various types of equipment and products that meet plant requirements in accordance with international standards such as IEC 60079-0, 60079-1, 60079-7, 60079-15, 60079-31 etc., as well as for similar European EN standards.

Also for the ‘Ex nA’ or ‘Ex nR’ restricted breathing devices, Cortem Group decided to appoint accredited certification bodies aiming to ensure full credibility to the quality of these products instead of using self-certification procedures as many companies are still following today.