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Areas with risk of explosion: aircraft maintenance in Hangars

Wednesday, 17 April 2019 PDF icon Areas with risk of explosion: aircraft maintenance in Hangars
1. Introduction
 
Very often we think that the equipment designed for use in potentially explosive environments is exclusively intended to be installed in refineries and crude exploration or extraction platforms. In reality, analyzing in depth how many and which application sectors can be, we discover many other plant situations that need to safeguard people and things through the use of materials and equipment suitable for the specific purpose. One of these is the hangars in which aircraft are parked for routine and extraordinary maintenance activities.
 
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Types of fossil and non-fossil fuels and the growth of LNG demand

Wednesday, 20 March 2019 PDF icon Types of fossil and non-fossil fuels and the growth of LNG demand
Natural gas, in the last century, has become one of the most widespread fuels on earth, but it is also known to all that climate change is a consequence deriving from the use of fossil fuels, among which also Natural Gas is included.
 
Fuels are divided into different basic product categories such as:
 
• Liquefied Natural Gas 
LNG is produced with a gas cooling and condensation process. The main component is methane, with a variable percentage between 90 and 99%, while the remaining part consists of butane, ethane and propane.
 
LNG, at temperatures above -112° C, is lighter than air and disperses quickly, not contaminating the ground.

Machinery, Materials and electro-instrumental panels to be used in plants for food production

Monday, 25 February 2019 PDF icon Machinery, Materials and electro-instrumental panels to be used in plants for food production

In the food industry world, there are many problems related to the hygienic safety of production stations along the entire supply chain for the production and packaging of food products.

For these reasons, the utmost attention is paid to the choice and use of materials and equipment that will be used for the production cycle, from construction to the management and feeding of all equipment and/or machinery operated not directly by the operator.

The "MOCA" certification (Materials and Objects intended to come into Contact with Food) is dedicated to all producers of materials and objects that come into contact with food.

Prevention during the phases of fuels loading and unloading in petrol filling stations

Friday, 25 January 2019 PDF icon Prevention during the phases of fuels loading and unloading in petrol filling stations
As often happens, people's sensitivity to certain issues and events increases when accidents occur, even fatal, in proportion to the severity of the accident.
 
Recent news events lead us to a more than necessary reflection on the activities of loading and unloading fuels at petrol refuelling stations.
 
Everyone will have witnessed, during the refuelling operations of his car, the loading of tanks buried by self-propelled vehicles without paying attention to the procedures put in place during these operations nor to the clearly written instructions on each pump such as switch off the engine, do not smoke and last but not least, switch off the mobile phone.
  
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Electrical control panels suitable for ambient with explosive or flammable dusts

Wednesday, 12 December 2018 PDF icon Electrical control panels suitable for ambient with explosive or flammable dusts

1. Introduction

 

Criteria and responsibilities in electro-instrumental systems in classified areas

Monday, 22 October 2018 PDF icon Criteria and responsibilities in electro-instrumental systems in classified areas
1. Introduction
 
The constant and continuous technical evolution consequently leads to the need to update reference standards of everything concerning the installation, operation and maintenance of the electro-instrumental equipment suitable for installation and operation in environments with the presence of explosive gases or dusts.
 
For these reasons, it is essential that the designer, the manager and maintenance operator of such equipment must have all the regulatory tools always present and constantly updated, in order to correctly design and size the electro-instrumental equipment and then to keep them constantly efficient, respecting the protection of people and things.
 
2. The regulations covering the Ex field 
 
The following list of the regulations describes the fundamental criteria to be adopted for the construction, installation and maintenance of electro-instrumental equipment.

The voltage levels and the energy distribution in the world

Friday, 14 September 2018 PDF icon The voltage Levels and the energy distribution in the world
1. Introduction
 
Electricity is the engine of the world, whether it is produced by oil, gas, water flow (waterfalls with dams and related turbines), wind energy, photovoltaics, fossil combustion (coal and fossil coal) or from renewable sources (bio gas or bio masses).

The aircraft warning lighting

Thursday, 19 July 2018 PDF icon The aircraft warning lighting
1. Introduction
 
"Obstacles to fly" are commonly defined vertical constructions such as buildings of large dimensions, power lines, antenna repeaters, supports, chimneys, wind generators, cableways, stretched ropes and similar infrastructures that exceed a certain height from the ground, divided into:
  • vertical obstacles with a height equal to or greater than 60 meters from the ground, if located in residential areas and with a height of 15 meters from the ground, if located outside the residential areas.
  • linear obstacles with a height above the ground of 15 meters or more, consisting of power lines with a voltage exceeding 50 kV (regardless of the height above the ground) and all obstacles with a height of less than 15 meters above the built-up areas; having a particular location and not easily recognizable.
 
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From food to textile industry: the often disguised explosiveness of dusts

Thursday, 19 April 2018 PDF icon From food to textile industry: the often disguised explosiveness of dusts
1. Preface
 
Dust explosions can occur in any activity in which solid materials are treated and finely divided (metals, organic substances, polymers, resins, coals, wood, etc.). Dust may be the end product of a process or an unwanted by-product. Even very common substances such as wheat flour, cocoa powder, icing sugar, tea, coffee, present an explosion hazard, often masked by their familiar appearance, when they are treated, in powder form, on industrial scale in milling, transport, separation, drying processes.
A myriad of small-sized particles is produced during the processes, thus creating dust. The particles with dimensions that are too large to remain suspended in the air are deposited, while the smaller ones remain suspended for an unlimited period.
 
The powders are measured in microns (μm). The micron is a unit of length equal to 10-4 (0,0001) centimeters or about 1/ 25,000 of an inch.

The use of batteries in hazardous areas

Tuesday, 20 March 2018 PDF icon The use of batteries in hazardous areas
1. Type of batteries and technical evolution
 
The electric energy in alternating current produced by thermal systems (coal-fired or oil power stations etc.) or by hydroelectric plants, is "non-accumulable" while the energy in direct current can be stored using devices called "Battery". This system allows to dispose of the energy over time and to be able to use it even in the absence or failure of the supply of traditional energy in alternating current.
 
With the rechargeable batteries, the charge can be completely re-established through the application of adequate electrical energy, with voltage/current control.

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