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The plant normalization

Tuesday, 1 December 2015 PDF icon The plant normalization
In this treatment we will discuss the concepts and the guidelines adopted for the proper plant design, the electrical plant dimensioning and the related equipment selection. During the engineering construction and development stage, the electrical designer will be responsible to collect from all other disciplines, information on quantities, physical and orographic location of all electrical equipment to be powered and managed.

The new EN 60079-14 Standard

Sunday, 1 November 2015 PDF icon The new EN 60079-14 Standard: the correct use of cable gland
A few months ago was released the updated version of the European standard EN 60079-14 concerning the design, selection and installation of electrical systems for areas with potentially explosive atmosphere that has replaced the old version, which will remain in force until January, 1st 2017. What distinguishes the new legislation respect to the previous version has been the elimination of the scheme for the selection of entries in Ex enclosures.

The use of ferrous, non-ferrous and plastics materials

Thursday, 1 October 2015 PDF icon The use of ferrous, non-ferrous and plastics materials for the construction of electrical and electronic equipment, suitable for
In chemical, petrochemical, oil plants and, generally, in all types of industrial facilities which present a danger of explosion due to the presence of gas in the form of cloud or flammable dust, there are also harsh chemical substances that can be harmful and source of deterioration of electric and non-electric equipment. For these reasons, it’s necessary to pay great attention, during the plant design, to a correct selection of the types of materials, depending on the specific needs of the plant in which such equipment must operate.

Comparison between discharge and LED lighting fixtures

Tuesday, 1 September 2015 PDF icon Comparison between discharge and LED lighting fixtures
Discharge lamps have been considered for a long time, the best solution for lighting large areas, such as petrochemical plants or other buildings for industrial production. This is from the point of view of the relationship between the light output and the cost. The luminous efficiency of discharge lamps reaches and, in certain cases, exceeds 100 Lumen/ Watt, that is, with the same energy consumption, about 5-6 times the output of quartz-iodine lamps. Currently, with the technological improvement and the development of power components, LED lighting systems are gradually spreading into different environments, replacing the lighting fixtures with discharge lamps.

Dimming light with LED lighting fixtures

Wednesday, 1 July 2015 PDF icon Dimming light with LED lighting fixtures
From the point of view of lighting design, the lighting needs in the industrial sector are very different according to the type of activity performed. Usually, production areas need lighting systems with a wide beam while, to facilitate the work in the warehouse facilities, lighting fixtures with a narrow beam are preferable. In some cases, presence detection systems can be a solution to reduce the cost of energy but, often, they are not applicable because of worker safety issue. In areas dedicated to production activities, lighting is used throughout the working period and, covered warehouses, have almost always windows through which a certain amount of daylight passes. In this type of environments, it’s appropriate to rely on systems for lighting control in function of the daylight in order to reduce energy costs. These systems use special sensors which measure the incidence and the intensity of natural light allowing the emission of artificial light so much as it’s required to get the level of illumination neaded. Today, thanks to the increasing application of LED technology to explosion-protected lighting equipment, it’s possible to dimming light source even in locations where there’s a potentially explosive atmosphere.

The use of stainless steel on explosion-proof equipment

Monday, 1 June 2015 PDF icon Use of stainless steel on the explosion-proof equipment
In industrial plants such as petrochemical, chemical and, in general, in places with potentially explosive atmosphere and with possible presence of gas or explosive and aggressive dust, different materials may be used, depending on installation, explosiveness and corrosion characteristics. The materials used today in these areas for the realization of electrical equipment, lighting fixtures, fittings and components, are mainly divided into two categories: Ferrous: aluminium with a low content of copper, cast iron, brass, carbon steel, stainless steel; Non Ferrous: mass polyester reinforced with glass fibers and graphite, polycarbonate, borosilicate glass. In this article, we talk about the use of stainless steel as a raw material for the production of electrical equipment and materials, suitable for installation in potentially explosive environment and its ability to withstand corrosion caused by weather and aggressive substances.

The function of cable glands

Friday, 1 May 2015 PDF icon The function of cable gland
The cables entry into electrical explosion-proof junction boxes suitable for areas with hazardous atmosphere can be performed in several ways in compliance with EN 60079-14 standard. We have already discussed in previous newsletters about conduit systems and about the use of sealing fittings. In this article, we will speak about cable systems with the use of cable glands. Cable glands must be constructed according to the Ex "d" method of protection, meet the requirements of EN 60079-1 standard and must be certified and marked. Depending on the type of use, they can be with compression ring and barrier.

Emergency lighting systems in hazardous areas

Wednesday, 1 April 2015 PDF icon Emergency lighting systems in hazardous areas
As everyone knows, emergency lighting means illumination designed to operate when the ordinary one is missing. This is one of the main principals of plants safety to allow the evacuation of people in case of danger, or even, more simply, to allow operators, to move, in case of electrical failure and black out. In systems installed in areas with the presence of a potentially explosive atmosphere, this type of system has several further critical issues compared to a system installed in a safe area.

The illuminance in industrial environments

Sunday, 1 March 2015 PDF icon The illuminance in industrial environments
The visibility of everything that surrounds us is essential to allow us to better understand the nature’s gifts. A proper lighting, whether natural or artificial, means that the objects are more highly valued and perceived. Cortem Group, focused on everything concerning lighting suitable for installation in areas with danger of explosion, has designed a series of products for Zones 1-21 and Zone 2-22, suitable for installation and operation in potentially explosive atmospheres such as refineries, Off-Shore drilling platforms, drilling and extraction FPSO ships, chemical and petrochemical plants, grain depots, paint booths, biogas plants and in all industrial areas where there may be such a risk.

The use of remote phosphor technology in EVE-L series LED lighting fixtures

Sunday, 1 February 2015 PDF icon The use of remote phosphor technology in EVE-L series LED lighting fixtures
The amount of energy resources has decreased as a LED lamp can have 100.000 hours of lifespan compared to 1.000 hours of incandescent lamps and 10.000 hours of fluorescent lamps. Furthermore, LED lamps consume energy equal to approximately 15% of the incandescent lamps of equal power (W). Many are convinced that LED technology is an invention of the last decade or two decades but this is not true. Infact, these days we celebrate the discovery of LED occurred 50 years ago, to be precise in 1962, although the Nobel award in 2014 was not attributed to the true inventor: Nick Holonyak.